Article III of the IAEA Statute, inter alia, gives the Agency the authority to establish and manage safeguard measures. If the Governing Council approves a guarantee agreement, it shall authorise the Director-General to conclude the agreement and subsequently apply it. Read more → Although nuclear non-proliferation (NPT) does not require its five nuclear-weapon states (NWS) to enter into safeguard agreements, the states concerned (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) have each concluded voluntary safeguards agreements with the IAEA. This was in part to allay the fears expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their nuclear industry might be criminalized commercially. Under article III of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), all non-nuclear-weapon States are required to enter into a safeguards agreement with the IAEA known as a comprehensive security agreement (CSA or INFCIRC/153). In view of the almost universal adherence to the NPT, protective measures are now widespread. The five nuclear-weapon States parties to the NPT have concluded voluntary safeguards agreements in which IAEA applies safeguards to nuclear material at facilities voluntarily proposed by the State and selected by IAEA for safeguards. The IAEA applies precautionary measures under a voluntary offer agreement to verify that nuclear material remains in peaceful activity and is not removed from safeguards, unless the agreement so provides. In addition to strengthening safeguard measures through the adoption of the Model Additional Protocol, the IAEA also developed, in the late 1990s and 2000s, methods to improve the effectiveness and effectiveness of the implementation of protective measures with respect to States that have both SASC and ASF.
The IAEA has begun to use a “state-level approach” to fully assess a state`s compliance with safeguards rather than on a facility-by-facility basis. It has also begun to adopt “broader conclusions” for States to reduce the burden of implementing safeguard measures by applying the approach at the State level. According to the explanatory memorandum, the new agreement “will enter into force after the trilateral agreement on voluntary offers in the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom is no longer applicable. This will probably be at the end of the implementation period. The five nuclear non-proliferation treaty states (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) are not required to have IAEA safeguards agreements under the NPT. However, all five have signed voluntary safeguards agreements allowing the IAEA to apply safeguard measures to materials located in selected eligible facilities. These are nuclear materials and civilian sites. The five nuclear-weapon States have also concluded additional protocols to the voluntary security agreements. The IAEA and Canada concluded the first safeguards agreement in 1959, and in 1961 the IAEA Board of Governors approved a document that sets out the safeguard principles. Since 1961, both the scope and application of safeguard measures have evolved. .